154 元类实现ORM

元类实现ORM

1. ORM是什么

ORM 是 python编程语言后端web框架 Django的核心思想,“Object Relational Mapping”,即对象-关系映射,简称ORM。

一个句话理解就是:创建一个实例对象,用创建它的类名当做数据表名,用创建它的类属性对应数据表的字段,当对这个实例对象操作时,能够对应MySQL语句

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demo:

class User(父类省略):
    uid = ('uid', "int unsigned")
    name = ('username', "varchar(30)")
    email = ('email', "varchar(30)")
    password = ('password', "varchar(30)")
    ...省略...

u = User(uid=12345, name='Michael', email='[email protected]', password='my-pwd')
u.save()
# 对应如下sql语句
# insert into User (username,email,password,uid)
# values ('Michael','[email protected]','my-pwd',12345)

说明

  1. 所谓的ORM就是让开发者在操作数据库的时候,能够像操作对象时通过xxxx.属性=yyyy一样简单,这是开发ORM的初衷
  2. 只不过ORM的实现较为复杂,Django中已经实现了 很复杂的操作,本节知识 主要通过完成一个 insert相类似的ORM,理解其中的道理就就可以了

2. 通过元类简单实现ORM中的insert功能

class ModelMetaclass(type):
    def __new__(cls, name, bases, attrs):
        mappings = dict()
        # 判断是否需要保存
        for k, v in attrs.items():
            # 判断是否是指定的StringField或者IntegerField的实例对象
            if isinstance(v, tuple):
                print('Found mapping: %s ==> %s' % (k, v))
                mappings[k] = v

        # 删除这些已经在字典中存储的属性
        for k in mappings.keys():
            attrs.pop(k)

        # 将之前的uid/name/email/password以及对应的对象引用、类名字
        attrs['__mappings__'] = mappings  # 保存属性和列的映射关系
        attrs['__table__'] = name  # 假设表名和类名一致
        return type.__new__(cls, name, bases, attrs)

class User(metaclass=ModelMetaclass):
    uid = ('uid', "int unsigned")
    name = ('username', "varchar(30)")
    email = ('email', "varchar(30)")
    password = ('password', "varchar(30)")
    # 当指定元类之后,以上的类属性将不在类中,而是在__mappings__属性指定的字典中存储
    # 以上User类中有 
    # __mappings__ = {
    #     "uid": ('uid', "int unsigned")
    #     "name": ('username', "varchar(30)")
    #     "email": ('email', "varchar(30)")
    #     "password": ('password', "varchar(30)")
    # }
    # __table__ = "User"
    def __init__(self, **kwargs):
        for name, value in kwargs.items():
            setattr(self, name, value)

    def save(self):
        fields = []
        args = []
        for k, v in self.__mappings__.items():
            fields.append(v[0])
            args.append(getattr(self, k, None))

        sql = 'insert into %s (%s) values (%s)' % (self.__table__, ','.join(fields), ','.join([str(i) for i in args]))
        print('SQL: %s' % sql)

u = User(uid=12345, name='Michael', email='[email protected]', password='my-pwd')
# print(u.__dict__)
u.save()

执行的效果:

Found mapping: password ==> ('password', 'varchar(30)')
Found mapping: email ==> ('email', 'varchar(30)')
Found mapping: uid ==> ('uid', 'int unsigned')
Found mapping: name ==> ('username', 'varchar(30)')
SQL: insert into User (uid,password,username,email) values (12345,my-pwd,Michael,[email protected])

3. 完善对数据类型的检测

class ModelMetaclass(type):
    def __new__(cls, name, bases, attrs):
        mappings = dict()
        # 判断是否需要保存
        for k, v in attrs.items():
            # 判断是否是指定的StringField或者IntegerField的实例对象
            if isinstance(v, tuple):
                print('Found mapping: %s ==> %s' % (k, v))
                mappings[k] = v

        # 删除这些已经在字典中存储的属性
        for k in mappings.keys():
            attrs.pop(k)

        # 将之前的uid/name/email/password以及对应的对象引用、类名字
        attrs['__mappings__'] = mappings  # 保存属性和列的映射关系
        attrs['__table__'] = name  # 假设表名和类名一致
        return type.__new__(cls, name, bases, attrs)

class User(metaclass=ModelMetaclass):
    uid = ('uid', "int unsigned")
    name = ('username', "varchar(30)")
    email = ('email', "varchar(30)")
    password = ('password', "varchar(30)")
    # 当指定元类之后,以上的类属性将不在类中,而是在__mappings__属性指定的字典中存储
    # 以上User类中有 
    # __mappings__ = {
    #     "uid": ('uid', "int unsigned")
    #     "name": ('username', "varchar(30)")
    #     "email": ('email', "varchar(30)")
    #     "password": ('password', "varchar(30)")
    # }
    # __table__ = "User"
    def __init__(self, **kwargs):
        for name, value in kwargs.items():
            setattr(self, name, value)

    def save(self):
        fields = []
        args = []
        for k, v in self.__mappings__.items():
            fields.append(v[0])
            args.append(getattr(self, k, None))

        args_temp = list()
        for temp in args:
            # 判断入如果是数字类型
            if isinstance(temp, int):
                args_temp.append(str(temp))
            elif isinstance(temp, str):
                args_temp.append("""'%s'""" % temp)
        sql = 'insert into %s (%s) values (%s)' % (self.__table__, ','.join(fields), ','.join(args_temp))
        print('SQL: %s' % sql)

u = User(uid=12345, name='Michael', email='[email protected]', password='my-pwd')
# print(u.__dict__)
u.save()

运行效果如下:

Found mapping: uid ==> ('uid', 'int unsigned')
Found mapping: password ==> ('password', 'varchar(30)')
Found mapping: name ==> ('username', 'varchar(30)')
Found mapping: email ==> ('email', 'varchar(30)')
SQL: insert into User (email,uid,password,username) values ('[email protected]',12345,'my-pwd','Michael')

4. 抽取到基类中

class ModelMetaclass(type):
    def __new__(cls, name, bases, attrs):
        mappings = dict()
        # 判断是否需要保存
        for k, v in attrs.items():
            # 判断是否是指定的StringField或者IntegerField的实例对象
            if isinstance(v, tuple):
                print('Found mapping: %s ==> %s' % (k, v))
                mappings[k] = v

        # 删除这些已经在字典中存储的属性
        for k in mappings.keys():
            attrs.pop(k)

        # 将之前的uid/name/email/password以及对应的对象引用、类名字
        attrs['__mappings__'] = mappings  # 保存属性和列的映射关系
        attrs['__table__'] = name  # 假设表名和类名一致
        return type.__new__(cls, name, bases, attrs)

class Model(object, metaclass=ModelMetaclass):
    def __init__(self, **kwargs):
        for name, value in kwargs.items():
            setattr(self, name, value)

    def save(self):
        fields = []
        args = []
        for k, v in self.__mappings__.items():
            fields.append(v[0])
            args.append(getattr(self, k, None))

        args_temp = list()
        for temp in args:
            # 判断入如果是数字类型
            if isinstance(temp, int):
                args_temp.append(str(temp))
            elif isinstance(temp, str):
                args_temp.append("""'%s'""" % temp)
        sql = 'insert into %s (%s) values (%s)' % (self.__table__, ','.join(fields), ','.join(args_temp))
        print('SQL: %s' % sql)

class User(Model):
    uid = ('uid', "int unsigned")
    name = ('username', "varchar(30)")
    email = ('email', "varchar(30)")
    password = ('password', "varchar(30)")

u = User(uid=12345, name='Michael', email='[email protected]', password='my-pwd')
# print(u.__dict__)
u.save()

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Last modification:November 6th, 2018 at 09:55 pm

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